Three Schools of Thought
The Hebrew Prophets, especially Daniel, laid the foundation for prophecies concerning the end of the present evil age and the coming new age. Jesus himself gave his disciples the most comprehensive teaching about the end times in what is referred to as his Olivet Discourse (so named because it took place on the Mount of Olives). When he and his disciples were walking in Jerusalem and approaching the great Temple, the disciples marveled at the magnificence of the structure. Jesus said that there would not be one stone left upon another. The disciples asked him, "when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world?” (Matthew 24:3) He was therefore not discussing only the destruction of the Temple, but the signs of his coming and the end of the age (the word for "world" in this verse is aion, or age). He began by warning them not to be deceived, and described things that would continue from his time forward.
There are basically three schools of thought regarding the words of Jesus and the understanding of prophecy in general. They are called Preterism, Historicism, and Futurism. There are certain variations within each school, but most systems of interpreting prophecy fall within one of these three categories. (Another school of thought regarding prophecy is called Idealism, which holds that all of the prophecies, especially the Book of Revelation, are merely symbols of a spiritual conflict between Satan and God, and not to be taken literally at all. Having established the physical nature of the Kingdom of God in other articles on this site, I won't take the time to examine this view here.)
Preterism believes that Jesus' predictions of the Abomination of Desolation and the Great Tribulation were fulfilled in 70 AD. The emperor Titus in that year oversaw the destruction of the Temple and the driving out of the Jews from Jerusalem. But while the Temple was destroyed, none of the other things Jesus said would immediately precede his return took place.
According to Daniel, the antichrist would meet his end at the time of the destruction of the Temple following a period of Great Tribulation, such as has never been or ever would be. This would then be followed by the resurrection of the dead and the ushering in of the Messianic Age. But General Titus did not meet his end at that time, and while the suffering of the Jews at the time could be described as tribulation, it was not The Great Tribulation, because it was not followed by the resurrection and the ushering in of the Kingdom.
The biggest problem Preterists have with other ways of understanding eschatology (the study of the end times), is that Jesus said, "This generation shall not pass until all these things have been fulfilled." This is understood as the contemporaries of Jesus, who were around at the time that he spoke these words. It is held that if the events of 70 AD were not the fulfillment of Jesus' predictions, then he was wrong and the disciples were all mistaken about the timing of his return. (More about this in the article, This Generation.)
Preterists therefore reinterpret the Kingdom and the Age to Come as spiritual things which are fulfilled in the Church, and consider "the end of the age" to be the end of the Old Covenant. However, the Kingdom is never redefined that way in the New Testament. Jesus' partial fulfillment of Kingdom prophecies involved literal healing and miracles (see here). Furthermore, the Old Covenant was never called an age in the Hebrew Scriptures. The Age to Come is a term that is repeatedly used in Scripture to refer to a literal reign of righteousness on a renewed earth ruled by the Messiah. Preterists consider the resurrection and return of Christ to have happened spiritually, and invisibly. However Revelation 1:7 says, "Behold, he cometh with clouds; and every eye shall see him, and they also which pierced him: and all kindreds of the earth shall wail because of him. Even so, Amen."
Besides the misunderstanding of “this generation,” Preterists believe that the end must have come within the lives of the Apostles, because of several references that seem to be indicating time. The New Testament writers spoke of being in “The Last Days,” and of end time events happening “soon” or “shortly.” These passages are examined in the article, Refuting Preterism.
Some versions of historicism claim that the Tribulation ended three and a half years after Christ, and that the Millennial Reign has been in place since then, but it is not literally a thousand years. Others see the Great Tribulation as the entire period of Church history, while others assign a date to the time when the Tribulation ended and the Millennium began. Such dates include 1799, when Napoleon captured the Pope of his day, or 1914, when the Jehovah's Witnesses say the return of Christ happened, albeit invisibly. All versions of this theory have the same problems that Preterism had, that is, they don't fit with the prophecies from the Old Testament.
Many versions of Historicism simply declare the meaning and interpretation of various symbols in Revelation without offering any Biblical basis for such interpretation. The Bible itself enables us to interpret prophecy when we adhere to the principles discussed in the previous article, especially that of linking different passages which use the same terminology. As mentioned before, the Book of Revelation makes many references to the Old Testament, and those references must be understood in order to properly understand Revelation.
One of the principles on which Historicism is based is the "day-year" theory. This states that in prophecy a day represents a year. As a result, when Revelation refers to 1260 days, it is interpreted as 1260 years, and various schemes of setting times and identifying events result. The problem with the day-year theory is that it was only referred to indirectly, in Numbers 14:34 and Ezekiel 4:5-6. Both of these scriptures speak of a day for a year in regards to specific instances. There is nothing to indicate that this is a general principle to be applied to all prophecies, any more than Peter's declaration "...that with the Lord one day is like a thousand years, and a thousand years like one day" (II Peter 3:8) is to be interpreted literally regarding the timing of prophecies.
Some versions of Historicism identify the 70th "week" of Daniel to include Jesus' ministry plus another three and one half years. But there is no historical evidence that anything changed three and a half years after his ministry, much less the resurrection of the just and the ushering in of a new age. It is obvious that Satan is not bound today, but continues to deceive the nations (Revelation 20:3).
Many versions identify a particular point in history as the time when the Tribulation ended and the Millennium began. But without a visible resurrection from the dead and return of Christ to reign on earth, none of these theories fit the prophecies. And those that consider the Tribulation to be still continuing, with the Millennium yet future, must deal with how the Great Tribulation can have lasted throughout the last two thousand years. It was said to be a time that would be “shortened” (KJV) or "cut short" (NASB) (Matthew 24:22). Could it really be referring to a period that is now longer than the Millennial Reign? And we still have to consider the words of Jesus in the Olivet Discourse.
The first part of Jesus' answer (vs. 4-14) speaks of wars and rumors of wars, famines, pestilences, and earthquakes. These are things that would happen from Christ's time onward, as opposed to what would happen immediately before the end. They are described as "the beginning of sorrows" (verse 8). The word literally means "birth pangs" and is translated as such in the NRSV and the NASB. The beginnings of birth pangs are to go on for a while, increasing in frequency and intensity towards the end as labor pains do. But Jesus said that while these are happening the end would not be yet.
In contrast, in the second part of Jesus' response (vs. 15-31), he says that when they see the Abomination of Desolation spoken of by Daniel, that would indicate the beginning of the end. As we saw in the Foundations of Prophecy, Daniel tells us that the future tyrant will destroy the city and the Temple, and that before he does so he will stop the sacrifices and set up the Abomination of Desolation in the Temple (Daniel 9:26-27; 11:31; 12:11). Matthew 24:15 also speaks of the Abomination of Desolation standing "in the holy place," and Mark 13:14 says "when ye shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing where it ought not..." The masculine singular pronoun implies that it is either an object or a person standing where it (or he) shouldn't. This also fits with Paul's description of the Man of Sin.
Jesus told his disciples that the Abomination of Desolation would be the trigger that will start the Great Tribulation, and we know that this will be just before the return of Christ, from the timing given in Matthew 24 and Mark 13.
Notice Matthew says that immediately after the tribulation the sun will be darkened and the moon will not give its light. The prophet Joel wrote that the sun would be darkened and the moon turned to blood "before the great and the terrible day of the LORD come" (Joel 2:31). Putting these prophecies together (along with what we read in Daniel), we conclude that the Great Tribulation will be immediately followed by the sun and moon being darkened, and then comes the Day of the Lord, when Christ returns, at which time the dead in Christ are raised. Then Christ’s reign begins, and will be characterized by no more war. This further establishes that the prophecy was not fulfilled in 70 AD, since these events obviously did not happen then.
Since Jesus referred to the Abomination of Desolation as a future event in his time, it also could not have been fulfilled at the time of the Maccabees, as some have suggested. At that time there was a historic event that was similar, when Antiochus Epiphanes placed a statue of Jupiter in the Temple at Jerusalem. While this can be regarded as a type or preview of the fulfillment, it can't be the ultimate fulfillment, as we saw, since Jesus spoke of it as an event that was still future in his time. As we have seen, it is not uncommon for a prophecy to have a "type" fulfillment, as a preview or foreshadow of the ultimate fulfillment.
Similarly, Jesus had told his disciples that the very Temple they were looking at would be destroyed, and sure enough it was, in 70 AD. But since that was not followed by the Great Tribulation and the coming of Christ, it also was not the fulfillment of Daniel's prophesies and must be regarded as a type or foreshadow. Like the wars and rumors of wars in the first part of the Olivet Discourse, it falls in the category of things that would happen, "but the end is not yet." The ESV Study Bible has the following note on Mark 13:4-37:
The record in Mark 13 follows Matthew's record pretty closely, but in Luke 21 we see a few variations. We read of the wars, earthquakes, famines, etc., but the end is not yet. We read of the persecution and being delivered into bondage as well. But then, where Matthew and Mark say that the Abomination of Desolation is the sign to flee, in Luke we read of Jerusalem being under siege.
Some commentators have concluded that the armies surrounding Jerusalem is the Abomination of Desolation, and conclude that the siege in 70 AD was the fulfillment. But it doesn't say that; it just says that when you see Jerusalem surrounded, you will know that the desolation is near. In Matthew and Mark, Jesus links the Abomination of Desolation with the evil tyrant of Daniel, and states that it will mark the beginning of the Great Tribulation. And all three Synoptic Gospels have the time of Great Tribulation followed by signs in the heavens and the Son of Man coming in the clouds.
Furthermore, the events of 70 AD are not the only possible understanding of "Jerusalem surrounded by armies." Revelation 11:2 links the holy city being trodden underfoot by the Gentiles with the Great Tribulation, and with the period of "forty-two months" (also referred to in Revelation 13:5). This trodding underfoot will end when the time of the Gentiles is fulfilled. These things in Luke, like those in Matthew and Mark, are all linked to the prophecies in Daniel and Joel (and others), and refer to what will happen just prior to the end of the age marked by "signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars" (verse 25) followed by seeing "the Son of man coming in a cloud with power and great glory" (verse 27). While the events of 70 AD can certainly be viewed as a foreshadowing of God's judgment, they are not the fulfillment of prophecies.
The various events in history that have been suggested as fulfillment of prophecies are at best types or foreshadows of the events that the Prophets say are to take place. In order for the prophecies to be fulfilled, there must be a wicked prince who stops the sacrifices and sets up the Abomination of Desolation in the Temple. This will begin the period of the Great Tribulation, which will last for three and a half years, and immediately after that, there will be signs in the heavens, the Son of Man will return, the dead shall be raised, and a new age of God's reign will begin. All these events are inextricably linked, and will be seen in succession at the time of the end. This is why I believe they are yet future.
Since the prophecies involve the coming evil tyrant defiling the Temple and stopping the sacrifices, we know that another Temple will be built sometime before these events. This will be a carnal undertaking, not in accordance with God's will, since God no longer requires physical sacrifices. Even before the establishing of the modern state of Israel in 1948, there were Bible scholars who foresaw the need for the Jews to be in the land in order for prophecy to be fulfilled. Such an idea was thought ridiculous at the time, but it came to pass nevertheless. The establishment of the modern state of Israel began to set the stage for these prophecies to be fulfilled. There is even now talk of rebuilding the Temple in Jerusalem. Time will tell how these events play out.